Cosmology, the Study of Origins

by WordExplain

"God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them." Genesis 1:27

























 
Sixth Day of Creation. Part 2

God's Creation of Man, the Crown of His Creation

Genesis 1:26-31

A. God's Creation of Man. Gen. 1:26-27

1. God's Resolve to Create Man "in Our Image and Likeness": Gen. 1:26a

"Then God said," (Literally, "And said God,")

"Then said" - Literally, "And said", where "and said" is the Qal Waw Consecutive Imperfect of the verb 'amar (559), "to say, speak, utter." The NASB editors translated the Waw at the beginning of the verse as "then" rather than "and" for stylistic purposes.

"God" - "God" is the always plural noun 'elohiym (430), the generic name for God, the Strong One, the Creator of the heavens and the earth, and everything in them (Gen. 1:1).

'Let Us make man'

Let Us make man in Our image according to Our likeness (emphasis mine): The doctrine of the Trinity is not fully presented in the OT. There is, however, ample room for it. The Hebrew plural verb and plural pronouns here are consistent with the plural name for God, Elohim (430), and provide ample room for the existence of the complex, Triune God.

"Let Us make"
is the 1st Person Plural Qal Imperfect of the verb ‛âśâh (6213),
to make (Gen. 1:7), do (Gen. 2:2), fashion, construct (Ex. 25:8), prepare (Gen. 18:7, 8; 19:3).

"man"
- The Hebrew noun is dm (120). But this noun does double duty. Most of the time, as here,
it refers to generic man. Lexicographers have, somewhat arbitrarily, assigned a different, specific meaning to the same word, depending on the context. That specific designation is to the man, “Adam,” represented by the same Hebrew word, dm, but assigned an adjacent number, (121). It is transparent as to why we identify the first man as Adam,” which is merely a transliteration of the Hebrew word for “Man.” But the reader should know that the same Hebrew noun, dm, appears, again, somewhat arbitrarily, under two different designations, 120 and 121. It is the same noun, and the context indicates whether the writer, in this case Moses, is speaking of generic mankind or of the specific individual, Adam. Sometimes the distinction is not always clear.

'in Our image' - the singular noun tselem (6754), "image, likeness, resemblance," is used sometimes of statues of heathen gods (2 Kings 11:18; 2 Chron. 23:17; Amos 5:26), and sometimes of paintings (Ezek. 23:14) with the 1st Person Plural pronominal suffix, "our."

God is a Spirit-being (John 4:24), and so His creation of man in His own image is a spiritual likeness, not a physical likeness. There are several ways in which we as humans were created in God’s image: (1) There is a moral likeness. God is a moral Being with a profound sense of right and wrong. God made us with a moral sense of right and wrong. We have consciences. Consciences can be wrongly programmed, and thus give a false reading. Or we can override our consciences. Nevertheless, we all have standards of right and wrong, of fair and unfair. No coyote, for example, has ever felt a twinge of conscience about killing a rabbit. (2) There is an intelligence likeness. Though various animals display certain levels of intelligence, there is a vast gulf between man and animals. Only man is able to create a computer, land humans on the moon, or perform brain surgery. (3) There is a communication likeness. God is a gregarious, relational Being. He created us for communion and fellowship. To do that, we must be able to communicate with Him and He with us. Language separates man from animals. Man can learn to communicate with animals, but no dolphin is able to speak fluent Chinese or English. (4) There is a spiritual likeness, otherwise called a “God-consciousness.” Though man’s ability to perceive God has been enormously hampered ever since his “fall” (Gen. 3), still, most humans have a God-consciousness, no matter how flawed their perception might be. No animals have ever been found worshiping God. (5) There is a creative likeness. God is a creative Being. He gives man the ability to create other human lives that exist forever into eternity future in some status. This creative likeness is also seen in our ability to create beautiful music, art, architecture, landscapes, furniture, and machines. Man is the only being created in God’s likeness and image. Man is the crown of God’s creation!


'according to Our likeness' - the singular noun demûth (1823), "likeness, similitude," prefixed with the proclitic kaf, "according to" or "in accordance with,"
with the 1st Person Plural pronominal suffix, "our." The terms "image" and "likeness" are synonyms. Everything that is said above in connection with "image" applies also to the term "likeness." Once again, the plural suffix "our" argues for the plausibility of a complex, triune being who is one person possessing the same essence, yet manifesting Himself in multiple persons, three, as we find out in the NT. The plurality of God is also revealed in the curious, yet revealing narratives in the OT concerning the Messenger of Yahweh.

2. God's Decree that Man Should Rule: (Gen. 1:26b)

'and let them rule' - “Rule” is the 3rd Masculine Plural Qal Imperfect of the verb radah (7287), "to rule, have dominion over, dominate" (adapted from BDB), used only twice in Genesis – here, and in Gen.1:28. It is used, for example, in 1 Kings 4:24, where it is said that Solomon had dominion (ruled) over everything west of the (Euphrates) River, from Tiphsah (on the Euphrates) to Gaza (west of Israel almost on the Mediterranean Sea coastline). God commissioned man to rule over all the animals, and even over the earth itself.
     The modern environmental movement rejects man’s rulership over the animals and over the earth. It sees man as the biggest enemy of the earth. One of its goals, at least in America, is to cordon off man from as many acres of land as possible and leave the land in its natural state. Where the protection of species runs at cross purposes with man’s desire to build or farm or settle, the environmental movement votes for animals and against man virtually every time. In fact, the environmental movement has become a haven for Marxists who want to use the environmental movement to attack free trade and confiscate and redistribute national wealth through "Carbon Pricing." See Bolivia’s “Law of the Rights of Mother Earth.” See also the "Great Reset."
     Admittedly, man has not always done well protecting the environment. When Jesus Christ comes back to rule the earth, there will occur the greatest cooperation between business and agriculture and a sustainable environment this world has ever known since the fall of man. See Isaiah 11:1-9; 35:1-10; 65:18-25; Amos 9:11-15.

'over the fish of the sea' - "over the fish" is the singular noun dâgâh (1710), "fish," preceded by the proclitic preposition "bet," here meaning "over;" "of the sea" - the singular of the noun yâm (3220), preceded by the article ha, "sea" or "ocean" or "waters"


'and over the birds of the sky' - "and over the birds," the singular of the noun ‛ôph (5775), "bird," preceded by the conjunction waw, "and," and the proclitic preposition "bet," here meaning "over;" "of the sky" - the always-plural shâmayim (8064), "heavens," preceded by the article ha, "the." Literally, the phrase reads, "and over the bird of the heavens."


'and over the cattle' - this phrase translates the single singular noun behêmâh (929), "beast, animal, cattle," (BDB) preceded
by the conjunction waw, "and," and the proclitic preposition "bet," here meaning "over." For accuracy (not style), I prefer the translation, "and over the animal," since animal is unquestionably singular, while "cattle" conveys a plural sense. The noun is singular.

'and over all' - the noun kôl (3606), "all, whole, entirety,"
preceded by the conjunction waw, "and," and the proclitic preposition "bet," here meaning "over;"

'the earth' - the singular noun 'erets (776), here meaning the entire planet Earth, preceded by the article ha, "the." It is clear that God authorized man to rule over the entirety of planet Earth. As a whole, the environmental movement defies this authorization. From their view, man is a parasite on planet earth and should be prevented, whenever possible, from ruling over earth and its animals. It is true that man, in his fallen state, has not always done a good job of ruling over the earth. In certain cities of China and India, for example, the air quality is so low due to air pollution, that breathing the air is injurious to one's health, especially during certain times of the year. Nevertheless, for better or for worse, God has authorized man to rule the earth. Under the rule of the Great King, Jesus, there will be a perfect balance between using earth's resources and preventing pollution.

'and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.'"

"and over every" - the noun kôl (3606), "all, whole, entirety," here "every," preceded by the conjunction waw, "and," and the proclitic preposition "bet," here meaning "over;"

"
creeping thing" - the always-singular noun remeś (7431), literally, "creeping thing," "moving thing," "crawling thing." "Creeping thing" "refers to all animals that crawl or creep close to the surface of the ground" (Morris, p. 71). (See more discussion at Genesis 1:24 in the discussion on Land Animals.)

"that creeps" - the singular Qal Participle of the verb
râmaś (7430), "creep, move lightly,  move about" (BDB), "crawl" preceded by the article ha, "the." Literally the term reads, "the one creeping"... NASB 2020 translates the phrase, "and over every crawling thing that crawls" ...

"on the earth" - the preposition ‛al (5921), "on" or "upon;" - "the earth" -
the singular noun 'erets (776), here meaning the land portions of the entire planet Earth, preceded by the article ha, "the."

Clearly God has given man jurisdiction, authority, rulership over every land animal that creeps or crawls upon the ground. This includes all reptiles, worms, insects, etc.

3. The Account of God's Creation of Man (Gen. 1:27)

a. The fact of God's creation of man: {27} "God created man in His own image," - Literally, "And created God the man in His image."

"And created" is the 3rd Masculine Singular Qal Waw Consecutive Imperfect of the verb bârâ' (1254), in the Qal stem, to "shape, fashion, create," and, in the Qal, always with God as the subject.

"God" is the always-plural common noun 'ĕlôhı̂ym (430), "God" - the Strong One, the Creator of all.

"the man" is the common noun 'âdâm (120), "man," appearing here with the prefixed article ha, "the." The use of the article "the" may refer to generic man as first referenced in Gen. 1:26. Hebrew often does this. However, I believe it may also refer to the first man God created as the Progenitor and Federal Head of the human race. As the text will reveal (Gen. 2:18-25), and apparently unlike any other specie, when God first created man, He created only one instance, the male, Adam. Later, after having named all the animals, and after observing he did not have a corresponding mate, Adam was anesthetized by God, and a rib was taken from his side, from which God created the first woman, Eve. Truly Adam was the Federal Head of all mankind, male and female, for better or for worse (Rom. 5:12-21).

"in His image" is the noun tselem (6754), "image, likeness, resemblance" with the 3rd Masculine Singular suffix, "His," the antecedent being "God." The word "own" does not appear in the Hebrew text, and is not really necessary to understand the meaning here. This "image" is a constitutional, moral, spiritual resemblance, not a physical resemblance. (See the discussion under image above in Gen. 1:26.)

b. The unique nature of man – he was created to be like God: "in the image of God He created him;" (Gen. 1:27b)

"In the image" is the noun tselem (6754), "image, likeness, resemblance"

"of God" is the always-plural masculine common noun 'ĕlôhı̂ym (430), generic name for "God," the Strong One, creator of all that exists.

"He created" is the 3rd Person Masculine Singular Qal Perfect of the verb bârâ' (1254)
in the Qal stem, to "shape, fashion, create," and, in the Qal, always with God as the subject.

"him" is the untranslatable particle known as the Object Marker 'êth (853), followed by the 3rd Masculine Singular pronoun, "him," referring back to the first man
'âdâm (120), used in the previous clause with the article ha, "the."

c. The specific gender of God's creation of man: "male and female He created them." (Gen. 1:27c)

"male" is the masculine singular noun zâkâr (2145), "male," whether offspring of man (Gen. 1:27; 5:2) or of animals (Gen. 6:19; 7:3), distinguishable from female (Gen. 1:27; 5:2).

"and female" is the feminine singular noun neqêbâh (5347), used of an adult woman (Gen. 1:27; 5:2), in reference to a girl child (Lev. 12:5), and in reference to any animal specie (Lev. 3:1, 6; 4:28, 32), and in distinction from a male (Gen. 1:27; 5:2; 6:19; 7:3, 9). The noun is preceded here by the conjunction waw ("and").

"He created" is the 3rd Masculine Singular Qal Perfect of the verb bârâ' (1254) in the Qal stem, to "shape, fashion, create," and, in the Qal, always with God as the subject.

"them" is the 3rd Masculine Plural of the
Object Marker 'êth (853), referring back to the male and female of the first and only human beings. Genesis 2:18-25 narrates the method  through which God created the female, Eve (Gen. 3:20), from the male, Adam (Gen. 5:1-5).

Application: God created man as male and female. The practice throughout history of men cohabiting with men and women cohabiting with women is a perversion of the uniqueness with which God created male and female. It is an affront to God the Creator and an affront to one's own person and identity to engage in such behavior. The modern-day repudiation of God's creative order identified as transgenderism, transsexualism, or other forms of gender dysphoria is a denial that God created man as male and female. It is a repudiation of creation and a repudiation of God. Genesis 18:16-19:29 is a staggering reminder of the judgment that will befall people who abandon God's creative design (Rom. 1:18-32; 2 Pet. 2:6; Jude 1:5-7). People who trust in Jesus as the Messiah are urged to flee such practices (1 Cor. 6:9-11; Gal. 5:16-24).

B. God's Commissioning of Man: (Gen. 1:28)

1. God's blessing of man: {28} "God blessed them;" literally, "And blessed them God;"

"And blessed" is the 3rd Masculine Singular Piel Waw Consecutive Imperfect of the verb bârak (1288). The root means "to kneel down" (Gen. 24:11, Hiphil stem). The idea is that when you kneel down you honor someone and acknowledge his worth. Most frequently, the verb is translated in a derived sense, "to bless", i.e. to respect and honor another by prescribing or wishing good things to befall him. In this sense it stands in opposition to cursing another (Gen. 12:3). God wished for and decreed good things for man, whom He had created in His image and likeness. When man failed to trust God and, instead, disobeyed Him (Gen. 3:1-7), man forfeited a great many of God's blessings. Instead he inherited many cursings (Gen. 3:16-24).

"them" is the Object Marker
'êth (853) with the 3rd Masculine Plural suffix, referring back to the male and female of the first and only human beings, whom God had created.

"God"
is the always-plural masculine common noun 'ĕlôhı̂ym (430), generic name for "God," the Strong One, creator of all that exists (Gen. 1:1).

2. God's decree to man: (Gen. 1:28) "and God said to them," literally, "and said to them God," wherein

"and said" is the 3rd Masculine Singular Qal Waw Consecutive Imperfect of the verb 'âmar (559), to "utter, say, speak," (adapted from BDB)

"to them" is the particle lamed "to" with the 3rd Masculine Plural Suffix, "them"

"God"
is the always-plural masculine common noun 'ĕlôhı̂ym (430), generic name for "God," the Strong One, creator of all that exists (Gen. 1:1).

a. To be prolific upon the earth: (Gen. 1:28)

(1) "Be fruitful" is the Masculine Plural Qal Imperative of the verb pârâh (6509), "bear fruit, be fruitful" (BDB)

(2) "and multiply" is the
Masculine Plural Qal Imperative of the verb râbâh (7235) in the Qal meaning "become numerous, be(come) great" (Simple Hebrew-English Dictionary), "multiply," preceded by the conjunction waw, "and."

(3) "and fill,"
the Masculine Plural Qal Imperative of the verb mâlâ' (4390), "be full, fill" (BDB), "populate" (JTB), preceded by the conjunction waw, "and;" "the earth" consists of the Object Marker 'êth (853) followed by the article ha, "the," and the either-gender, common noun, 'erets (776), here referring to the entire planet Earth.

b. To subdue the earth (Gen. 1:28)

"and subdue it;" is the Masculine Plural Qal Imperative of the verb kâbash (3533), preceded by the conjunction waw ("and"); in this context (Gen. 1:28), meaning "to subdue in a beneficent fashion," "to make the earth subservient to the wishes and plans of man;" followed by the 3rd Feminine Singular suffix, "it," whose antecedent is the either gender, common noun, 'erets (776), planet Earth.

God never intended that man should leave vast tracts of land untouched. It is man’s job to improve nature, not leave it in the wild (Gen. 2:15). Environmentalists’ loathing of man’s subduing of nature has actually led to destructive policies. For example, the notion that humans cannot even go into a standing forest and harvest dead wood and thin out trees in California and the Pacific Northwest has created situations in which forests have such an abundance of fuel that any fire whatever consumes vast regions of trees. Typically, in California, 4.4 million acres of forest burn up annually! This mindless, anti-man policy is, in my mind, responsible for the countless devastating wildfires in California and the Pacific Northwest every year. In the process, some people die, many homes are destroyed, and a great many animals lose their lives. So this blinded policy destroys more animals than it saves! How foolish and counter-productive! Whenever man rejects what God has established, tragedy and dysfunction strike sooner or later.

Let us also keep in mind that, when God gave this command to man, man was holy, good, unfallen. Had the first man not sinned (Gen. 3:1-7), (and no one else had), man would have been able to subdue the earth without polluting it and otherwise damaging it. Unfortunately man sinned, and man's domination of the earth has, in many cases, been extremely harmful. We eagerly await the return of the Ultimate Man and King, Jesus Christ for a restoration of nature to something of its original glory (see, for example, Isa. 11:6-9; Ezek. 47:1-12). The ultimate restoration of nature awaits the fiery destruction of the existing sin-cursed universe and God's creation of New Heavens and New Earth, wherein will dwell only righteousness, righteous people, and eternal life (2 Pet. 3:10-13; Rev. 21:1-22:5).

c. To rule over all earth's creatures (Gen. 1:28)

(1) "and rule over the fish of the sea" (Gen. 1:28

"and rule" is the Masculine Plural Qal Imperative of the verb râdâh (7287), preceded by the conjunction waw, "and"; râdâh means to "rule" (Psa. 72:8; 110:2), to "have dominion" (over) (Num. 24:19), to "subdue" (Isa. 14:6; 41:2), to "prevail" over (Lam. 1:13), to "dominate" (Ezek. 34:4).

"over the fish" - the Feminine Singular Noun dâgâh (1710), "fish," preceded by the proclitic preposition bet, in this instance, meaning "over"

"of the sea" - the Masculine Singular Noun yâm (3220), "sea," "ocean," probably applying to any body of water in this context, preceded by the article ha, "the."

(2) "and over the birds of the sky" - literally, "and over the bird of the heavens" (Gen. 1:28)

"and over the birds" - literally, "and over the bird" - the Masculine Singular Noun ‛ôph (5775), typically "bird" (Gen. 7:3, 8, 14) occasionally, "winged" (insect) (Lev. 11:20, 21, 23), preceded by the conjunction waw "and", and the preposition bet, here meaning "over."

"of the sky" - the always plural noun shâmayim (8064), "heavens," preceded by the article ha, "the." Here
shâmayim refers to the atmosphere, râqı̂ya‛ (7549), bounded by the Water Vapor Canopy above, with which God first created the earth (Gen. 1:6-8), and the surface of the earth or sea beneath.

(3) "and over every living thing that moves upon the earth." (Gen. 1:28)

"and over every living thing" - "and" is the conjunction waw, "and"; "over" is the preposition bet, here meaning "over"; "every" is the Masculine Singular noun kôl (3606), "all, whole, entirety," here "every"; "living thing" chay (2416), "living thing, animal" (BDB)

"that moves upon the earth." - "that moves" is the Feminine Singular Qal Participle of the verb râmaś (7430),
"creep, move lightly,  move about" (BDB), "crawl" preceded by the article ha, "the." Literally the term reads, "the one creeping" or "the one crawling"; "upon" is the preposition ‛al (5921), "upon"; "the" is the article ha, "the"; "earth" is the singular noun 'erets (776) here meaning "ground" or "soil" or "land" (as opposed to air or water).

It is clear that part of God's creating man in His own image and likeness (Gen. 1:26, 27) was granting him rulership or sovereignty over every animal upon earth, over every bird or insect that flies in the sky, and over every fish or whale or other creature that swims in the ocean, and over Planet Earth itself. Before the fall (Gen. 3), that rulership or dominion was a benevolent rulership. And even before the Flood, man did not eat animals, nor did animals eat one another (Gen. 1:29-30; cf. Gen. 9:1-7). Before the Flood, vegetation, including food sources, existed all over the earth. There was plenty of forage and fruit for both man and animals. After the Flood the whole biosphere was dramatically altered. Deserts appeared, and even though rain began (Gen. 2:5-6; cf. Gen. 6:17; 7:4, 11-12; 8:3, 22; 9:8-17), there were many areas where there was insufficient rain to sustain ample flora world-wide, and thus to support animal life. So after the Flood, God authorized both man and certain animals to be carnivorous (Gen. 9:1-5). To prevent animals from eating man, God placed a fear of man into all animals. Now man's rulership over animals necessarily became less benevolent. Man's sin that necessitated the Flood ultimately altered the benign, even friendly relationship between all animals (including dinosaurs) and man.

I believe that in Christ's Millennial Kingdom (Isa. 11:1-5), the animosity between man and animals will be set aside (Isa. 11:6-9). Ultimate harmony between man and animals presently occurs in Heaven (Rev. 4-5), and will occur upon New Earth and in New Jerusalem, which will descend from Heaven to, or close to, New Earth (Rev. 21:1-22:5).

C. God's Provision of Food for Man and Certain Animals (Gen. 1:29-30)

1. His decree of provision for man: {29} Then God said, "Behold, I have given you (Gen. 1:29)

Literally, "And said God," wherein "and said" is the 3rd Masculine Singular Qal Waw Consecutive Imperfect of the verb 'âmar (559), "to say, speak, utter," preceded by the waw, "and"; "God" is the always-plural 'ĕlôhı̂ym (430), "God," the Strong One, the Creator of all that exists.

"Behold!" is the Interjection hinnêh (2009), "Lo! Behold!" (BDB) or "Look!" "See!" (JTB)

"I have given you" is the 1st Person Singular Qal Perfect of the verb nâthan (5414), "give, put, set" (BDB), "I have given"; "you," literally, "to you" is the Prepositional Particle lamed, "to" followed by the 2nd Masculine Plural Suffix, "you." Literally, the two words "I have given you" can be translated, "I have given to you" or "I have granted to you" or "I have bestowed upon you" or "I have provided for you" (JTB)

a. Every plant: "every plant yielding seed that is on the surface of all the earth," (Gen. 1:29)

"every plant" consists of the untranslatable (Direct) Object Marker 'êth (853), followed by the Masculine Singular Noun kôl (3606), "all, whole, entirety," here "every," followed by the Masculine Singular Noun ‛eśeb (6212), "plant" (NASB); (kind of) "vegetation" (NASB); "herb" (KJV)

"yielding seed" - "yielding" is the Masculine Singular Qal Participle of the verb zâra‛ (2232), "yielding" (seed) or "producing" (seed); "seed" is the Masculine Singular Noun zera‛ (2233)

"that is on the surface" - literally, "that is on the face," wherein "that is" is the Relative Pronoun 'ăsher (834), "which" or "that." The antecedent of the relative pronoun is "every plant," just preceding.There is no verb of being, "is" in the Hebrew text. English translators provide it to make sense in English; "on the surface" translates the Preposition ‛al (5921), "on" or "upon;" "the surface" is the always-plural pânı̂ym (6440), literally, "faces," from which, in this context, translators supply the more palatable figurative derivation, "surface," literally, "surfaces."  Literally, we could translate the phrase, "which is on the surfaces of all the earth." One can easily see why Hebrews speak of multiple faces (surfaces) of the earth. In English, stylistically, it is preferable to use the singular "surface."

"of all the earth" translates two words, the Masculine Singular
noun kôl (3606), "all, whole, entirety" followed by the Singular noun 'erets (776), "earth,"  "land," "ground." The noun erets is pre-fixed with the article ha, "the."

b. Every fruit tree: "and every tree which has fruit yielding seed;" (Gen. 1:29) ***

"and every tree" - the untranslatable Object Marker 'êth (853), preceded by the Conjunction waw, "and," followed by the Masculine Singular noun kôl (3606), "all, whole, entirety," in this context, "every," followed by the Masculine Singular Noun ‛êts (6086), "tree," preceded by the article ha, normally translated, but not in this case, for good English.

"which has fruit yielding seed" -
the Relative Pronoun 'ăsher (834), "which" or "that." The antecedent of the relative pronoun is "every tree," just preceding. The Relative Pronoun is followed by the Preposition bet, with a 3rd Masculine Singular Suffix, "in it;" "has" is supplied in English - the verb does not appear in Hebrew; "fruit yielding seed" actually translates four words in Hebrew - "fruit of tree" - "fruit" is the Masculine Singular noun perı̂y (6529), "fruit," linked to the following Masculine Singular Noun ‛êts (6086), "of tree;" "yielding seed" - "yielding" is the Masculine Singular Qal Participle of the verb zâra‛ (2232), "yielding" or "bearing" or "producing;" "seed" is the Masculine Singular Noun zera‛ (2233), "seed."

c. The purpose of God's gift: "it shall be food for you." Literally, "For you it shall be for food." (Gen. 1:29)

"For you" is the Prefixed Preposition lamed, "to" or "for" with the 2nd Masculine Plural Suffix, "you."

"it shall be" is the 3rd Masculine Singular Qal Imperfect of the verb hâyâh (1961), "to be, become, exist"

"for food" consists of the Preposition
lamed, "for" prefixed to the Feminine Singular noun 'ôklâh (402), "food, eating" (BDB).

When God created man, he was a vegetarian. God’s original earth, and indeed, original cosmos, had no death, no decay, no exploding stars. There could be no eating of meat, because death did not yet exist. Tragically, death would only come when man chose to defy God's simple single restriction (Gen. 2:16-17; 3:1-19; 5:1-31; Rom. 5:12).

2. His decree of provision for animals (Gen. 1:30)

a. Land animals: {30) "and to every beast of the earth" (Gen. 1:30)

"And to every" is a single word, beginning with the prefixed waw, "and," followed by the preposition lamed, "to," followed by the Masculine Singular noun kôl (3606), "all, whole, entirety," in this context, "every"

"beast" is the Feminine Singular Noun chay (2416), "alive, living," preferably, "living thing" (JTB)

"of the earth" consists of the prefixed article ha, "the" (the Construct state requires the insertion of the preposition "of" prior to "the"); "earth" is the Singular Noun 'erets (776), here probably referring to the land portion of the planet, in distinction to the next category, which specifies creatures that fly in the air.

b. Sky animals: "and to every bird of the sky" (Gen. 1:30)

"and to every bird" consists of the prefixed conjunction waw, "and", followed by the preposition lamed, "to", followed by the Masculine Singular noun kôl (3606), "all, whole, entirety," in this context, "every", in a Construct state with the following Masculine Singular noun, ‛ôph (5775), "bird, fowl, flying creature, (winged) insect" (JTB)

"of the sky" literally, "of the heavens", the prefixed article ha, "the" followed by the Masculine, always-plural noun shâmayim (8064), "heavens," here referring to the atmosphere bounded by the Water Vapor Canopy above and the earth / sea beneath.

c. Moving animals of every sort: "and to every thing that moves on the earth which has life, (Gen. 1:30)

"and to every thing that moves" - the prefixed Conjunction waw, "and," followed by the prefixed Preposition lamed "to", followed by the Masculine Singular noun kôl (3606), "all, whole, entirety," in this context, "every thing"; "that moves" is the Masculine Singular Qal Participle of the verb râmaś (7430), "creep, move lightly, move about" (BDB). These two Hebrew words together could be translated, "and to every thing moving"

"on the earth"
consists of the Preposition
‛al (5921), "on" or "upon;" followed by the article ha, "the," prefixed to the Singular Noun 'erets (776), "land," "earth," here referring to the land or ground portion of the planet exclusive of any sea or watery portions of the planet in which fish swim.

"which has life" - literally, "which in it (exists) a spirit living," wherein "which" consists of the
Relative Pronoun 'ăsher (834), "which" or "that," followed by the Preposition bet, "in," ending with the 3rd Masculine Singular suffix, "it"; in English we have to supply a verb, "exists" or "is;" there follows the Feminine Singular noun nephesh (5315), "soul, living being, life, self, person, desire, appetite, emotion, and passion" (BDB), "spirit" (Chabad) "living," the Feminine Singular Adjective chay (2416), "alive, living" (BDB). In more fluent English, but still faithful Hebrew, this phrase might be translated, "in which there is a living spirit" (Chabad).

It should be noted that the succession of phrases beginning in Gen. 1:30 all identify animals to whom God has given "every green plant for food," as Gen. 1:30 concludes. These animals to whom God has given every green plant for food include all land animals, all sky animals, along with animals of every sort that move along the ground.

d. The description of God's gift: "I have given every green plant" (Gen. 1:30)

"I have given" - The pronoun "I" and  verb "have given" do not appear in the Hebrew text, a fact which is accurately noted by means of italics in the NASB, which places them in the English text for stylistic purposes. In English, we could just as accurately convey the same idea with the use of a dash – followed by the next words.

"every green plant" begins with the untranslatable Object Marker
'êth (853), which I would recommend be translated by the use of a dash – instead of by the more cumbersome "I have given"; followed by "every," the Masculine Singular noun kôl (3606), "all, whole, entirety," in this context, "every," appearing in the Construct state with the next noun, "green," the Masculine Singular yereq (3418), "green" (used but 6X in the entire OT); followed by "plant," the Masculine Singular of the noun ‛eśeb (6212), "herb, herbage" including grass for cattle (adapted from BDB). In the NASB 1995 it is translated 12X as "plant(s)" 7X in Genesis and 5X in Exodus; as "grass" 13X in Deuteronomy (2X), Job (1X), Psalms (4X), Proverbs (1X), Daniel (5X); as "vegetation" (11X) in 2 Kings (1X), Psalms (3X), Isaiah (2X), Jeremiah (2X), Amos (1X), Micah (1X), and Zechariah (1X); and as "herb" 1X in Deuteronomy.

e. The purpose of God's gift: "for food." (Gen. 1:30)

"for food" - the Preposition lamed, "for" followed by the Feminine Singular Noun 'ôklâh (402), "food," "eating" "(with some verbal force)" (BDB).

All animals were vegetarian when God first created them. Death did not arrive until the point at which man sinned (Gen. 3:1-7, 21). As the Apostle Paul pointed out, it was through one man that “...sin entered the world, and death through sin ...” (Rom. 5:12). Nevertheless, evidently both man and animals remained vegetarian until God necessarily expanded their diet to include meat on account of the greatly altered biosphere and dearth of vegetation around the globe after the Great Flood of Noah (Gen. 9:1-7)

3. The result of God's decree: "and it was so." This two-word (in Hebrew) clause begins with the Conjunction waw, "and" followed by the 3rd Person Singular Qal Waw Consecutive Imperfect of the verb
hâyâh (1961), "it was," in this context meaning "became" or "came to be" or "happened" or "came about," followed by the Adverbial Particle kên (3651), meaning "so, thus" usually "as has been described or commanded, with ref. to what has preceded."  It occurs frequently with the verb hâyâh, and is translated "and it was so" (adapted from BDB).

The point is that the creative act God had proposed, creating man and animals, and providing food for all, came about exactly as He had proposed. The phrase "and it was so" appears in this chapter in Gen. 1:7, 9, 11, 15, 24, 30.

D. God's Assessment of His Creation: "God saw all that He had made, and behold, it was very good." (Gen. 1:31a)

1. God's Observation of His Entire Creation: Literally, "And saw God all that He had made" (Gen. 1:31a)

"And saw" is the 3rd Masculine Singular Qal Waw Consecutive Imperfect of the verb râ'âh (7200). This has the idea of seeing with perception.

"God" is the always-plural common noun 'ĕlôhı̂ym (430), God, the creator of the universe.

"all that"
is the untranslatable particle identified here as the Direct Object Marker 'êth (853), followed by the Masculine Singular Noun kôl (3606), "all, whole, entirety," in this context, "all," appearing here in the Construct State with the following Relative Pronoun 'ăsher (834), "which" or "that." The antecedent of 'ăsher is the following clause, "He had made."

"He had made" is the Qal Perfect 3rd Masculine Singular of the verb
‛âśâh (6213), "do, make" (BDB).

2. God's Superlative Assessment of His Entire Creation: Literally, "and behold, it was good -- very!" (Gen. 1:31b)

"and behold" consists of the Conjunction waw, "and" followed by the Interjection hinnêh (2009), "Lo! Behold!" (BDB) or "Look!" "See!" (JTB)

"it was good." "Good" is the adjective ṭôb (2896), pleasing to the eyes, and functionally good, appropriate. The words "it was" do not appear in Hebrew. They are supplied for good English.

"very!" is the Adverb
me'ôd (3966), "very, abundantly, exceedingly" (JTB).

"And God saw all that He had made, and behold! – it was exceedingly good!" It is unthinkable that an earth littered with trillions of fossils, the result of catastrophic death, could be called good. It is impossible that a universe filled with the results of a random, inexplicable cosmic explosion and littered with dying stars and supernovae could be called "good" in any way.

(Incidentally, astronomers, the vast majority of whom believe in an ancient universe, make several unproven and unprovable assumptions regarding the age of the universe. Young Earth creationists highlight profound difficulties with assuming an ancient earth. Here is one example of an article by a Young Earth creationist. It is "Study: Star Formation is Virtually Finished," by Brian Thomas, Ph. D. Here is another: Rare Supernova Recalls Missing Remnants Mystery, by the same author; and yet another: Evidence for a Young World, by D. Russell Humphreys, Ph. D.)

Again, it is impossible to reconcile
the theory of evolution with the Biblical record, which antedates Charles Darwin by more than 3200 years. After God’s creation of man and of all the animals was completed, it was exceedingly good. There was no death, no decay, no degeneration, no fossils, no supernovae. Evolutionists completely misconstrue the origin of fossils. Fossils are not the result of millions of years of gradual adaptation. In largest part, fossils are the result of the global flood, described in Genesis 7:1-8:22. The date of Noah’s Flood, incidentally, was around 2348 BC, nearly 4400 years ago.

In this brand new world with its newly created man, male and female, created by God in His own likeness and image as the crown of His creation to exercise limited sovereignty over all the animals and mandated to subdue the earth and rule over it, there was no entropy, no decay. There were no fossils, no missing links. Each classification of animal and Man himself were perfect with well-defined class distinctives. There was enormous genetic potential for development and diversity within each classification, but there was no ability whatever to mutate from one original  classification to another.
Decay and mutations and entropy and death entered the universe and the world only after Adam had sinned. (Gen. 2:16-17; 3:1-19; Rom. 5:12).

E. The Conclusion of the Sixth Day (Gen. 1:31c)

"And there was evening"

"And there was" translates the Qal Waw Consecutive Imperfect of the verb hâyâh (1961), the verb of being.

"evening" is the noun ‛ereb (6153), sunset, the closing of the day.

"and there was morning,"

"and there was" translates the Qal Waw Consecutive Imperfect of the verb hâyâh (1961), the verb of being.

"morning" is the noun bôqer (1242), the coming of dawn, daybreak.

"the sixth day."

"day" is the noun yôm (3117), here referring to a 24-hour day.

"the sixth" is the Adjective, Ordinal number shishshı̂y (8345), "sixth," preceded by the article ha, "the."

Summary: By this point in the sixth 24-hour day, God had created the heavens and the earth, light, an atmosphere to separate waters upon the earth from the water vapor canopy surrounding the earth, dry land, seas, vegetation of all sorts, the sun, moon and stars, all manner of fish and marine creatures to fill the waters and all manner of birds to fly in the atmosphere. Then God had created all manner of land animals. Following that, God had created the crown of His creation, man, both male and female, in His own likeness and image. The details of His creation of both the first man and the first woman will be explained in Gen. 2:4-25. He created man to rule over all the animals and over the planet. He had assigned man to reproduce and to fill the earth, blessing man in the process. And God saw everything that He had created was not only good, it was extremely good! There was no death, no decay, no sedimentary strata, no long geological ages, and not a single fossil anywhere was to be found. It was very good, because everything God creates is good because God is very good.

James T. Bartsch

WordExplain.com


Email Contact: jbartsch@wordexplain.com


  Sixth Day of Creation: Land Animals Seventh Day of Creation: Rest 






(Scripture quotation taken from the NASB 1995.)


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Updated February 9, 2022