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K&D; K and D. Keil and Delitzsch, conservative co-authors of a classic ten-volume commentary on the Old Testament.
Karl Friedrich Keil (1807-1888) was a German Protestant exegete who taught for years at Dorpat and later at Leipzig. He belonged to the orthodox and conservative school of Hengstenberg, and fortunately resisted the diabolic and destructive conclusions of modern criticism. His most notable contribution to the kingdom of God was his commentary on the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew text, and in collaboration with Franz Delitzsch (1813-1890).
Delitzsch was a German Lutheran of Hebrew parentage, and taught at Leipzig for a number of years. Because of his ethnic heritage he had a burning desire to evangelize Jewish people. He founded a seminary in Leipzig to prepare theological candidates for missionary work among the Jewish people. It is now called Institutum Judaicum Delitzschianum.
The monumental commentary on the Old Testament written by Keil and Delitzsch, now referred to simply as K&D, was first published in 1866. It was written in German, but soon translated into English. Keil wrote the commentaries on Genesis through Esther, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, and the minor prophets. Delitzsch wrote the commentaries on Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Song of Solomon, and Isaiah. The commentary is now apparently public domain, and the complete work appears online at StudyLight.org.
One brief caveat. Though Keil and Delitzsch providentially resisted the siren call of modern criticism, they were still products of their own theological background. The vast majority of mainline Protestant as well as Roman Catholic exegetes are afflicted with a non-literal interpretation of OT prophecy. They see the Church as permanently replacing Israel, and interpret OT prophecy metaphorically. To put it another way, they do not interpret prophetic Scriptures dispensationally. Keil and Delitzsch were no exception. WordExplain sees this as a serious deficiency in the prophetic portions of the commentary. Elsewhere, however, the authors' conservatism is a blessing. For example, Keil held to the Mosaic authorship of Genesis and the rest of the Pentateuch. Furthermore, for example, Keil understood Genesis 1 as a historical narrative, and the days of creation as literal solar days, not vast periods of time with which to accommodate the false religion of evolution.
Ketiv. That which is written in the Hebrew text. (Alternate English spellings of the Hebrew word include ketiv, ketib, kethib, kethibh, or kethiv.) The designation refers to the word in the Masoretic Text (MT) that is "written". Qere, on the other hand, refers to the variant reading in the margin that is supposed to be read. The reader should understand that the original Hebrew text was written in consonants only. Readers were to understand how a given set of consonants were to be pronounced. The Masoretes, scribes who copied the text, created a system of accents and vowel placement in order to codify explicitly the correct pronunciation. Aaron ben Moses ben Asher, in A.D. 930 produced the first complete Hebrew Bible using Masoretic symbols and ordering. It is called the Allepo Codex.
The Masoretes had so much respect for the Word of God as it had been handed down to them that they would not change a single letter. However, variants inevitably crept into some MSS. So a copyist would leave the word has it had been spelled in the text he had received, but he would use the margin to indicate what he thought to be the preferred pronunciation/reading/spelling. That was how it was to be read in synagogue - using the Qere reading. For modern scholars it becomes a matter of textual criticism to determine which is the more accurate reading - the Ketiv or the Qere. There is frequently dispute between scholars as to which is to be preferred. The editors of all modern English versions must also make decisions as to whether to use a Ketiv reading or a Qere reading. Sometimes they use one, sometimes they use another. Even the translators of the original King James Version occasionally used Qere readings as opposed to Ketiv readings. No major doctrine is affected by these differences. However whether one chooses the Ketiv reading or the Qere reading can affect the meaning, and therefore the interpretation of a given passage.
The most widely-used printed Hebrew Bible in use today is the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS). In the computer program version of BHS that I use, Bibloi 8.0, the Ketiv reading appears first in the main text and is designated by a single asterisk (*). The Qere reading, that which is to be read, appears next in the text and is indicated by two asterisks (**). There is otherwise no apparatus available in this program. The chief benefit of Bibloi 8.0 is its affordability.
King. The supreme leader of a country. A king, or monarch, has absolute authority. However he must always retain the confidence of a set of advisors or key supporters, and he must always retain the confidence of the leaders of the military. King's have life-and-death authority. That is, they can consign people to death. Some kings function also as judges. In some monarchies there is no need for a formal trial outside of the opinion and jurisdiction of the king.
Generally, a king passes on his authority to his most deserving male heir. It is the desire of every king to establish a dynasty, meaning a long succession of kings who are in his direct family line. In a settled form of government, this line of succession gives an orderly transfer of power to the next king by well-established rules. Throughout history, there have been those who have assassinated or otherwise deposed kings and themselves stepped into power. Generally, this revolutionary schemer is more of a dictator than a king.
In Old Testament understanding, God served as the King of Israel from its very inception as a nation. God presented himself as the invisible king with visible worship aids, such as the tabernacle, the items of furniture. When Israel lusted after a visible, human king, that was painful to God. But He acceded to their demands. In His providence, He had already determined, one day, to marry a God king with a human king. That came true in the person of Jesus of Nazareth, of the line of David. He was anointed by God to be not only a King, but a King/Priest after the order of Melchizedek.
As Anointed One, Jesus served primarily as Prophet during His earthly Ministry. Having been elevated to the right hand of the Father, Jesus presently serves primarily as Priest. When He returns to earth to rule, He will serve primarily as King.
Kingdom of God. From a theologically-constructed point of view, the eternal rule of God over all His creatures. A number of times, particularly in the Psalms, God is designated as King (Psa. 10:16; 29:10; 47:2,6, 7; 95:3). The kingdom of God includes His rule over angels, but that is not the primary focus of the Bible. From this point of view the Kingdom of God began at the moment God first created beings of any sort, whether they be angels or the four living creatures described by Ezekiel (Ezek. 1:5-14) and by John in Rev. 4:6-8; 5:6; 6:1, 6; 7:11; 14:3; 15:7; 19:4. Since God is eternal, His Kingdom is eternal.
An Exegetically-Constructed View of the Kingdom of God.
The story-line of the Bible is much more specific, however. It is God’s establishment of His Kingdom on Earth through Man. In the beginning God assigned man, whom He had just created, to rule over the earth and all its flora and fauna (Gen. 1:26-28). Man was to be King of the Earth. Because of his fall into sin (Gen. 3), man abdicated his ability to rule the earth benevolently. Through Jesus, God’s ultimate King, God redeemed (Tit. 2:14; Heb. 9:12) all who believe in King Jesus (Rom. 3:24, 25). Through King Jesus, God will rule over all the earth (Psa. 2:1-9; 110:1-7; Isa. 2:1-4; 9:6-7; 11:1-10; Zech. 14:9; Rev. 19:11-20:6). And the followers of King Jesus will rule existing Earth under Christ for a thousand years (Rev. 20:6), and New Earth in subservience to Him throughout eternity (Rev. 22:5).
An accurate discussion of God as King cannot be divorced from His relationship to the nation of Israel. For example, in the Psalms, God as King is associated with Mount Zion (Ps. 48:2); with the tabernacle ('sanctuary") (Ps. 68:24); and with Israel and the sons of Zion (Ps. 149:2). So again, God's reign over all the nations of the world cannot be disassociated from His reign over Israel, His chosen nation. From the very beginning of God's relationship with Abraham, father by promise of the sons of Israel, He promised to bless all the families of the earth through Abraham's seed (Gen. 12:1-3, 7; 13:15-16; 15:5, 18-19; 17:18-19; 22:15-18). God reaffirmed this promise to Abraham's son Isaac (Gen. 26:1-5) and to Isaac's son Jacob (Gen. 28:13-14), father of the Nation of Israel.
To be candid, the phrase "Kingdom of God" appears only in the NT. But an honest assessment of the Biblically constructed (not theologically-constructed) portrayal of the Kingdom of God, in my opinion, must be associated with the reign of Jesus Christ upon the earth from Jerusalem. In that sense, the kingdom of God is still future. It has not yet arrived. John the Baptist and Jesus Himself stated that it had drawn near (Matt. 3:1-2; 4:17; Mark 1:15). But the kingdom has not arrived because the King is absent from the earth (Luke 19:11, 12-27). The Church Age anticipates, but does not fulfill the Kingdom of God. The first installment of the Kingdom of God will be Christ's 1000-year reign (Rev. 20:16) over this present earth from present-day Jerusalem (Ps. 2:4-9; Isa. 2:1-4; Zech. 14:4, 9). The ultimate manifestation of the Kingdom of God will be upon New Earth, headquartered in its capital city, New Jerusalem (Rev. 21-22). The citizens of the Kingdom of God will reign with Him and Christ, the Messianic King, forever over New Earth (Rev. 22:5). See "Not Already, Not Yet" for a further discussion of this topic.
Kingdom of the Heavens. Jesus’ designation of the kingdom He was attempting to institute on earth as found in Matthew. His point was that His kingdom originated from above, not from the world, the sphere of Satan and of fallen man. Because the phrase is used exclusively in Matthew, discussion of the Kingdom of the Heavens here is limited to the events which Jesus described in that gospel. In reality, there is not significant difference between the “Kingdom of God” and the “Kingdom of the Heavens.” Typically translated “kingdom of heaven,” the phrase appears in passages depicting the announcements of John, Jesus, and the twelve concerning the impending kingdom (Matt. 3:2; 4:17; 10:7); in the Beatitudes (Matt. 5:3, 10); and in certain parables in which Jesus taught His disciples new truths about His kingdom (Matt. 13:11, 24, 31, 33, 44, 45, 47, 52; 25:1). Jesus has not yet begun His kingdom here on earth, for He has not yet returned. Presently Jesus is seated in heaven at the right hand of the Father serving as the Anointed High Priest of the order of Melchizedek, himself a King-Priest (Heb. 7:11-27). At Jesus' Second Coming, the Kingdom of the Heavens will commence on earth after a nearly 2000 year absence of its rightful King.
Kingdom Theology. "The phrase, 'Kingdom Theology,' has a great variety of meanings. Generally it has to do with the belief that the rule and reign of Christ on the earth through His church is a present reality and that reality should be the focus of our endeavors now. With it comes the tendency to reject a future kingdom on the earth. Thus it is generally opposed to a premillennial interpretation of Scripture and tends to be either amillennial or postmilllennial." (Credit for this definition goes to John Hannah, Th. D., Ph. D., Research Professor of Theological Studies, Distinguished Professor of Historical Theology, Dallas Theological Seminary.) Greg Boyd (The Myth of a Christian Nation: How the Quest for Political Power is Destroying the Church) is a proponent of Kingdom Theology. Also see the article, "Kingdom Theology Makes a Comeback" by David Gushee, McAfee School of Theology.