Like apples of gold in settings of silver Is a word spoken in right circumstances. Proverbs 25:11

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Dagesh. The diacritic dot placed in a Hebrew letter. "Any Hebrew letter (except the gutturals) can have a dot inside of it called a 'dagesh mark' (dagesh means 'emphasis'). There are basically two kinds of dageshim: The Dagesh Lene (kai) and the Dagesh Forte (chazak). For further explanation see Hebrew for Christians, Dotted Letters and Syllables. See also Basics of Biblical Hebrew, Hebrew Vowels.

Dagesh Lene. Six letters, namely Bet, Gimmel, Dalet, Kaf, Pey, and Tav may appear with or without a dot placed within them. This dot is called a Dagesh Lene. If the dot appears, the consonant will have a hard pronunciation. If it is absent, it has a soft pronunciation.

Dagesh Forte. This dot is used to double the consonant in which it occurs. For example, the Hebrew word םִיַמָשַּׁה (the heavens) has a Dagesh Forte in the Shin (שּׁ). It is rendered, therefore, as two Shins (שׁשׁ), hashshĺmayim. The Dagesh Forte can occur in any consonant except the gutturals ( ע ,ח ,ה ,א) and .ר

Dallas Theological Seminary. Dallas Theological Seminary (DTS) is a theologically conservative graduate level educational institution founded in 1924 by Dr. Lewis Sperry Chafer to advance expository preaching and teaching of the Bible. DTS has maintained a commitment to the inerrancy of the Word of God.  In 1935 the Seminary began its four-year Master of Theology (Th.M.) degree, which required an exposure to Old Testament Hebrew and New Testament Greek. In addition to Chafer, John F. Walvoord, Donald K. Campbell, and Charles Swindoll have served as presidents of the school. Mark Bailey assumed the mantle in 2001. DTS has been noted for its expository preachers and also for its literal hermeneutic, which has led to its strong defense of dispensational premillennialism. John F. Walvoord, Charles C. Ryrie, and J. Dwight Pentecost have been notable proponents of dispensationalism. Beginning in the 1980's, Darrell Bock, along with Craig Blaising and Robert Saucy, all graduates of DTS, developed Progressive Dispensationalism (PD). While PD may have contributed to a lively discussion within dispensational circles, and may have provided a limited fresh perspective to Classic and Revised Dispensationalism, it compromised too much with Covenant Theology. This resulted in the untenable conclusion that Jesus is presently reigning as Messiah on the throne of David. He is not. He is presently seated at the right hand of the Father as Melchizedekan High Priest, not as King. The latter ministry awaits His return to earth. PD also has blurred distinctions between Israel and the Church. Darrell Bock is presently Research Professor of New Testament Studies and Professor of Spiritual Development and Culture at DTS. It goes without saying that Dallas Theological Seminary, in more ways than one, is not what it used to be. Speaking as an alumnus, in my judgment the changes have not all been beneficial.

Daniel. A Jewish teenager abducted by the Babylonians, gifted by God to receive and interpret profound and far-reaching visions. Because of his Divinely-given insight and faithfulness he was elevated to positions of high honor both in the Babylonian and Persian governments. He lived from about 620 B.C. to 536 B.C. He wrote the book that bears his name in 537 B.C. (RSB). The most prominent Babylonian king under whom Daniel served was Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. 1:1; 2:1; 3:1; 4:1). The most prominent Persian king under whom Daniel served was Darius the Mede (Dan. 5:31; 6:1). We understand Daniel as a great Prophet. In his actual life, he was a Statesman, or, we might say today, a Bureaucrat, albeit an exceedingly honest and trustworthy one.
    Daniel's career. He was evidently a teenager belonging to the royal family when captured by Nebuchadnezzar in 605 B.C. (Dan. 1:1-7). Thus, we arbitrarily assign him a birth date of about 620 B.C.  He and his three friends Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah resisted the defiled menu they were offered (Dan. 1:8-16). God blessed the four youths, granting them marked superiority over their counterparts (Dan. 1:17-21). When Nebuchadnezzar dreamed a troubling dream about the course of five world empires, God gave Daniel the ability to interpret his dream (Dan. 2:1-49). When Nebuchadnezzar dreamed about a great tree that was chopped down, Daniel was able to interpret God's warning to the king to resist pride. The dream came true. Ultimately the king was restored, and he worshiped God as the King of heaven (Dan. 4:1-37). When King Belshazzar witnessed a hand writing strange words on the wall of his banquet hall, he was greatly troubled. When Daniel was called in he was able to interpret correctly the demise of Belshazzar's kingdom. That night Belshazzar was slain, and Darius the Mede received the kingdom at age sixty-two (Dan. 5:1-31). Daniel was so trustworthy under Darius that the king was about to promote him to the highest advisory position. His rivals grew jealous and tricked the king into casting Daniel into a den of lions. God's angel protected Daniel, and he was delivered. His opponents were cast into the den of lions, and they made short work of Daniel's adversaries (Dan. 6:1-28). In the next chapter we read of Daniel's dream of the four beasts, the Ancient of Days and the Son of Man. The vision outlined the Kingdoms of the World and the Kingdom of the Heavens that would replace them (Dan. 7:1-28). In the remaning chapters we read of the prophetic history of Israel during the times of the Gentiles (Dan. 8-12). He had a vision of the Ram and the Goat. This predicted the advance of the kings of Media and Persia who were to be conquered by Alexander the Great of Greece (Dan. 8:1-26). In the next chapter, Daniel prayed a prayer of confession and petition (Dan. 9:1-19). The angel Gabriel gave Daniel the prophecy of the seventy sevens of years outlining Israel's future (Dan. 9:20-27). Part of this prophecy has been fulfilled. The remainder awaits the Great Tribulation period. The next three chapters (Dan. 10-12) comprise a single unit of prophetic history in relation to Israel. Daniel had a vision and a stunning encounter with an angel (Dan. 10:1-21). The angel had assisted Darius the Mede (Dan. 11:1). There would be conquests by Persia (Dan. 11:2), Greece (Dan. 11:3-4), and conflicts between Egypt and Syria (with Israel caught in the middle) (Dan. 11:5-35). There would be the blasphemous rule of the Antichrist at the time of the end (Dan. 11:36-45). The final chapter outlines the fate of Israel during the time of the Great Tribulation (Dan. 12:1-13). At the end of the age Daniel himself would be resurrected (Dan. 12:13).

Daniel's Seventy Weeks. A time-line for Israel given to the statesman Daniel by the angel Gabriel contained in Daniel 9:24-27. (1) The term "seventy weeks" comes from Dan. 9:24. Most conservative commentators agree that this refers to seventy seven's of years. So the total prophecy covers 490 years. (2) The recipients of the prophecy are "your people and your holy city" (Dan. 9:24). This means Daniel's people, the nation of Israel, and his holy city, Jerusalem. (3) There are six objectives outlined in this prophecy. All but one will be accomplished at Christ's Second Coming. The one that has already been accomplished is "to make atonement for iniquity" (Dan. 9:24). This Jesus accomplished with his sacrificial death on the cross at His First Advent. The final objective, "to anoint the most holy" means to anoint the Messiah and the sanctuary of the Millennial Temple (Dan. 9:24). (4) The starting of the clock was to be the decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem (Dan. 9:25). This decree was given by King Artaxerxes of Persia in 445 B.C. (Neh. 2:1-8). This 490-year period was broken down into three subdivisions. The first division was seven sevens (49 years) followed by sixty-two sevens (another 434 years) (Dan. 9:25). (5) The end point of these first two divisions was "until Messiah the Prince" (Dan. 9:25). Using a Jewish 30-day month results in the dating of "Messiah the Prince" at Jesus' Triumphal Entry (Matt. 21:1-9). (6) Daniel 9:26 speaks of the Messiah's being cut off and having nothing. That predicted the rejection and crucifixion of the Messiah. (7) That verse continues, "and the people of the prince who is to come will destroy the city and the sanctuary (Dan. 9:26). This prophecy was fulfilled when the Roman Army destroyed Jerusalem and the Temple in A.D. 70. (8) Dan. 9:27 speaks of "the prince who is to come." Dan. 9:26 demands that he be associated with a revived Roman Empire. From other Scriptures we know him as the Beast of Rev. 11:7; 13:1-7; 17:3, 7-13, 16-17; 19:19-20; 20:10, and also the Antichrist (1 John 2:18). (9) This charismatic leader will make a 7-year Treaty with Israel which will grant Israel the right to rebuild their Temple (Dan. 9:27). (10) Half-way through the 7-year Treaty, he will terminate the sacrifices (Dan. 9:27), and will set up an image representing himself in the Holy of Holies, and will seat himself there also, proclaiming that he is the True Messiah, God-come-in-the-flesh (2 Thess. 2:3-4). (11) In the end, he will be destroyed at the Return of Christ (Dan. 9:27; 2 Thess. 2:8; Rev. 19:20). For additional information see the off-site article, "What are the seventy weeks of Daniel?"

Darius the Mede. The Medo-Persian King prominent in Daniel 5:31-6:28, which narrates God's protection of Daniel in the den of lions. There are two references to Darius the Mede in Scripture (Dan. 5:31; 11:1). Those who refuse to believe in the accuracy of the Scriptures deny the authenticity of the Book of Daniel (as written by the 6th Century B.C. Daniel) and of Darius the Mede. The difficulty is that secular history knows of no Darius the Mede, but it does know of Cyrus the Persian. So how do conservative Biblical scholars resolve what appears to be a discrepancy? According to RSB, "His identity is uncertain. He may have been Gubaru, a governor under Cyrus the king of Peria; or Darius may be another name for Cyrus himself; or he may have been Cambyses, son of Cyrus, who served as ruler of Babylon." Dan. 6:28 speaks of Daniel enjoying success "in the reign of Darius and in the reign of Cyrus the Persian." According to GotQuestions, "This has caused Bible scholars to posit that Darius was appointed viceroy over Babylon by his nephew, King Cyrus."

Dative Case. In NT Greek, the case of the indirect object; or the case which indicates the means by which something is accomplished. It is used most often in one of three general categories: Indirect object, Instrument (means), or Location. (See Corey Keating's Greek Nouns (Shorter Definitions).) Two examples of the Indirect Object use of the Dative are to be found in Luke 2:14 (author's translation): "Glory in highest places to God and upon earth, peace among men, [objects of God's] good will." Both "God" and "men" appear in the Dative case as indirect objects of the understood verb, "Let there be." Two examples of the Instrumental use of the Dative can be found in Eph. 5:18, where Paul commanded his readers not to become drunk by means of wine (wine appears in the Dative), but to be filled by means of the Spirit ("Spirit" appears in the Dative). Location can mean a spatial location or a chronological location. Spatial Location: Jesus commanded his followers to be his witnesses in Jerusalem, all Judea, and Samaria. Each of these place names appear in the Dative case. Chronological Location: for example, Paul wrote in Eph. 1:21 of "this age," which appears in the Dative).
David. Israel's greatest king, outside of Jesus of Nazareth, yet to be crowned King of Israel. David was the youngest of the seven sons of Jesse, the Bethlehemite (1 Sam. 16:1-13), but he was characterized as "a man after God's own heart" (1 Sam. 13:14). The prophet Samuel was instructed by the LORD to anoint David with oil as King of Israel. Once he had done so, God anointed David mightily with His Spirit (1 Sam. 16:12-13). Immediately thereafter, God's Spirit departed from Saul, and a "spirit-of-evil" from the LORD terrorized him (1 Sam. 16:14). Holy Spirit's empowering of David was quickly apparent. In one of the most stunning upsets of all time, the teenager shepherd felled gigantic Goliath with a sling and a stone (1 Sam. 17:1-49). David used Goliath's own sword to sever his head from his dead body (1 Sam. 17:50-51). Immediately the men of Israel and Judah proceeded to rout the fleeing Philistine army (1 Sam. 17:52-53). King Saul appointed David as general over his army, a position in which he prospered (1 Sam. 18:5). Because of David's success in killing the Philistine giant, the women came out to greet the returning troops and ascribed greater success to David than to King Saul (1 Sam. 18:7). That was the turning point. Saul eyed David jealously ever after (1 Sam. 18:8-9). The remainder of 1 Samuel (1 Sam. 18:10-31:13) records Saul's repeated attempts to kill David. His efforts were halted only by his own death in battle (1 Sam. 31:1-6).
    David's history thereafter is largely recorded in the book of 2 Samuel. David finally succeeded in becoming king over both Judah and the northern ten tribes of Israel (2 Sam. 1:1-5:5). In 2 Samuel 6:1-7:29 we read of David's plans to build God a house of cedar in which to live in Jerusalem. God surprised David with a counter offer. God would build David a house, a kingdom, and a throne which would last forever (2 Sam. 7:16). This is the key covenant of God with David which we know as the Davidic Covenant. Ultimately, Jesus Christ will fulfill this covenant God made with David (Luke 1:30-33).
    In 2 Sam. 8:1-10:19 we read of David's success as a king. For example, he defeated the Philistines, Moab, Rehob, the king of Zobah, and the Arameans of Damascus who came to the aid of Rehob. He defeated the Arameans and put garrisons in Edom (2 Sam. 8:1-14). Moreover, David defeated a strong Ammonite alliance, which included Aramean mercenaries (2 Sam. 10:1-19). Because God prospered him he was stunningly successful.
    Unfortunately, David had a tragic affair with Bathsheba, a beautiful married woman whose husband faithfully served in David's army (2 Sam. 11:1-5). David resorted to having her husband killed in battle and took the new widow as his wife (2 Sam. 11:6-27). As a judgment against David, God said that the sword would not depart from his family (2 Sam. 12:10). And it did not. David's son Amnon raped his half sister Tamar (2 Sam. 13:1-22). Tamar's full brother Absalom arranged for the murder of his half brother Amnon (2 Sam. 13:23-29). Then Absalom revolted against his own father, David, nearly succeeding in killing him (2 Sam. 15:1-17:29). In the civil war that followed, David's general Joab succeeded in assassinating Absalom against David's wishes (2 Sam. 18:1-19:4). Yet another civil war followed with Sheba leading another revolt against David (2 Sam. 19:5-20:22). The book of 2 Samuel closes with David committing the sin of unlawfully taking a census of the available soldiers of Israel and Judah (2 Sam. 24:1-9). Smitten of conscience, David confessed (2 Sam. 24:10). God gave David his choice of three punishments (2 Sam. 24:11-14). In response the angel of the LORD slew 70,000 inhabitants of the land with a pestilence (2 Sam. 24:15-17). The onslaught of the angel was stayed only by David's purchase of the threshing floor of Araunah and offering the sacrifices that appeased the wrath of the LORD (2 Sam. 24:18-25). In the providence of God, this threshing floor would become the site of the temple which David's son Solomon would build (2 Chron. 21:18-22:5).
    Yet David did, indeed have a heart for God. Of the 150 psalms in the Hebrew psalter, 75 are written by David. 2 Sam. 22:1-51 is an excellent sample that appears outside the psalter. In the end, David handed his throne over to his son Solomon (1 Kings 1:1-2:11). For awhile, Solomon had a grand and glorious reign as long as he stayed true to the LORD.

Davidic. Of, or having to do with King David. We speak, for example, of the Davidic Covenant. We also speak of Davidic kings, kings of Israel who were descendants of King David.
Solomon was the only son of David who reigned over united Israel. God tore the northern ten tribes away from Solomon's son, Rehoboam. Thereafter, Davidic kings were only to be found ruling over the Southern Kingdom, Judah. A minority of the kings of Judah were good kings. All the kings of divided Israel were evil. The ultimate Davidic King will be Jesus Christ. He has been anointed King by God, but not by any official from the nation of Israel. That awaits, I believe, His return to earth.

Davidic Covenant. When David wished to build Yahweh a house, meaning a temple (2 Sam. 7:1-3), Yahweh declined. Instead, Yahweh would build David a house, meaning a dynasty (2 Sam. 7:11). David's son (Solomon) would be the one who would build a house for Yahweh, and Yahweh would "establish the throne of his kingdom forever" (2 Sam. 7:12-13). Yahweh further promised to David, "Your house and your kingdom shall endure before Me forever; your throne shall be established forever" (2 Sam. 7:16). The term covenant was not used in this discussion, but four times Ethan the Ezrahite labeled Yahweh's promise to David a covenant (Ps. 89:3, 28, 34, 39). The terms of the Davidic Covenant are outlined in 2 Samuel 7:12-16, 1 Chronicles 17:11-14, and Psalm 89:3-4, 27-29, 34-37. To the virgin Mary, the angel Gabriel revealed that she would bear a son to be named Jesus, and that God would give to Him "the throne of His father David;" that "He will reign over the house of Jacob forever," and that "His kingdom will have no end" (Luke 1:26-33). Clearly Jesus the Messiah is the One through whom the Davidic Covenant will be fulfilled. When Jesus returns to earth, He will establish His kingdom, and His reign will never end!

Day of Grace. The age in human history here on earth when God's grace is consummately on display in the person of Jesus Christ through the ministry of the Church, the Body of Christ. It is equally appropriate to refer to the "Age of Grace" or the "Dispensation of Grace." More specifically, the Day of Grace or Age of Grace is to be identified as the Church Age.
    This era is known as a time or outworking of grace because it marks the era when God is especially extending grace to all of humanity. He sent His Son to be the Savior of the world (1 John 4:14). As the Jewish Messiah, He voluntarily surrendered His life to die on the cross at Calvary and pay for the sins of the entire world, even though most rejected Him. Jesus is God's Supreme expression of love for fallen humanity (1 John 4:10). Faith in Jesus Christ, God's sacrifice for sin, grants eternal life (John 3:16-18) and forgiveness of sin to all who believe (Acts 13:38-39). Jesus commissioned His followers to spread the message of grace and forgiveness to all of humanity (Matt. 28:18-20; Acts 1:8). This age has been continuing for 2000 years because God is patient, not willing that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance (2 Pet. 3:9).
    The Age of Grace is the time in history that began on the Day of Pentecost, when Jesus Christ sent the Holy Spirit to indwell those believing in Jesus as the Messiah (Acts 1:4-5, 8; 2:1-4). The Day of Grace will be terminated at the Rapture, the moment when Jesus returns to "snatch up" all those who believe in Him (1 Thess. 4:16, 17) and take them to heaven to the dwelling places He has prepared for them in "My Father's house" (John 14:2, 3).
    Prior to the Age of Grace was the Age or Dispensation of Law, the age when God was especially working through the Nation of Israel and the Law of Moses, also called the Mosaic Covenant, and the Old Covenant. It is not as though there was no grace present during the time of the Law. God has always been gracious. But during this time God was implementing the Law through the Nation of Israel. In a very real sense, the Law was a Tutor or Schoolmaster to bring people to Christ (Gal. 3:24, 25). A significant description characterizing the Day of Grace is this: "For the law was given through Moses; grace and truth were realized through Jesus Christ" (John 1:17).
    A very brief time period, or way of God's dealing with the peoples of the earth, will occur after the Rapture. It will be the Dispensation of the Tribulation, a terrifying time of testing and trouble that will plague those who dwell upon the earth (
Matt. 24:21; Rev. 3:10; Rev. 7:14), also known as "the wrath to come" (1 Thess. 1:10; 5:9), and as "the day of the Lord" (1 Thess. 5:2-3).
    Jesus Christ will return in power and glory to inflict vengeance on all who do not obey His Good News (2 Thess. 1:6-9). He will purify the earth through judgments, and will set up His kingdom upon earth. Jesus will reign over all the earth (Zech. 14:9) from the Rebuilt Temple in Jerusalem (Isa. 2:1-4). There will be a thousand years of great peace (Isa. 9:6,7), justice (Isa. 11:1-5), harmony (Isa. 11:6-9) and spirituality (Isa. 11:9; Zech. 14:16-21). This will be the Dispensation of the Millennial Kingdom (Rev. 20:4-6).

Day of the LORD. A period of time when the LORD enters into human history in order to bring about terrible judgment upon man for his evil. There have been historical fulfillments of the Day of the LORD (Joel 1:1-2:25; Isaiah 13:1-22). These historical fulfillments use language that typifies yet future fulfillments more devastating in ferocity and scope. Those eschatological fulfillments will take place during the Tribulation (Isaiah 13:6-13; Ezek. 30:3; Obad. 1:15-16; Zeph. 1:14-18), at the Second Coming of Christ to Judge the Nations preparatory to setting up His global Kingdom (Joel 3:1-17; Zech. 14:1-15), and at the Destruction of the Existing Heavens and Earth preparatory to the Creation of the New Heavens and Earth (2 Pet. 3:10-13). For more on the Day of the LORD, go to The Day of the LORD Index Page.

Day-Age Theory. A non-literal hermeneutical stratagem to avoid the clear meaning of "day" (yom) in Genesis 1:1-2:3 in a failed attempt to harmonize the Biblical teaching of Creation with the Old-Earth implications of the theory of Evolution, which is based entirely upon an unprovable presumption of uniformitarian geology and astrophysics (with the exception of the Big Bang, of course). In the Day-Age Theory, the 24-hour days of Genesis 1:1-2:3 are re-interpreted as referring to long periods of time covering millions and even billions of years. The Day-Age Theory is a specific application of the Old-Earth dogma held by both Theistic Evolutionists, who support evolution, and Progressive Creationists, who oppose it.

Deacon, better, Servant. One of only two offices in the New Testament local church, the other being elder or overseer, both terms referring to the same office.  The word deacon comes over into the English text untranslated from the Greek diakonos.  A diakonos was a household servant, who was above a slave (doulos).  Hence, a deacon was a servant in the church operating in an official capacity.  It is important to distinguish between an official servant and a generic servant in the New Testament.  Jesus, in effect, ordered us all to be servants (Mark 9:35), but not all who serve are church leaders.  Acts 6:1-6 seems to be the origin of the office of deacon.  The Greek widows complained that they were being discriminated against because of their ethnicity.  The apostles had a clear mandate from the instructions and example of Jesus.  Their job was not to serve tables, but to serve the Word. They asked the brothers to look for seven men who were above reproach and filled with the Holy Spirit.  Presumably the Apostles reserved veto rights.  The congregation complied, and seven Greek believers were chosen to assist in serving tables.  The Apostles appointed these "servants" to their ministry. The qualifications for deacons (better, Servants) are given in 1 Tim. 3:8-13.  The women mentioned in 1 Tim. 3:11 are most likely deacon (Servant) candidates' wives.  This is true for two reasons:  (1) Deacons (Servants) must be the husbands of one wife (1 Tim. 3:12), an impossible task for a female.  (2) If ever there were a time to appoint a female as a church officer, it would have been at the inception of the office in Acts 6:1-6.  It was a female problem (concerning widows), and yet males were appointed to be officials in charge of that ministry.  If one asks why the deacons’ (Servants') wives are mentioned (1 Tim. 3:11) but not the elders’ or overseers' wives (1 Tim. 3:1-7), a reasonable answer is that, while deacons’ (Servants') wives might be expected to assist them in a serving role, elders’ wives would not be expected to assist them in teaching and leading the flock. 

    It is most likely that Paul spoke of "our sister Phoebe, who is a servant (diakonon, accusative case of diakonos) of the church which is at Cenchrea" (Rom. 16:1) in an unofficial, rather than an official capacity. In fact, Paul almost immediately gave his reason for labeling her a servant of the church at Cenchrea: he stated, "for she herself has also been a helper of many, and of myself as well" (Rom. 16:2). Phoebe obviously had a servant's heart in the fellowship at Cenchrea, and is believed to be Paul's letter-bearer to the Romans. To argue that the Official Church Office of Deacon is in view in Rom. 16:1 because of the masculine gender of diakonos here really does not appear to carry much weight. Indeed, Blue Letter Bible and Friberg both parse this noun in this context as an Accusative Singular Feminine noun, even though it has the masculine ending. (The noun only appears with the masculine ending in the NT.)

The description of a deacon’s (Servant's) role in the New Testament is necessarily very broad.  Deacons (Servants) are called upon to assist elders in supervising ministries in areas that would otherwise pull elders away from their prescribed task of shepherding the flock by guiding, guarding, and feeding them.  A church can function without official deacons (Servants); it cannot function without elders.  Philippians is the only letter addressed to both elders and deacons (Phil. 1:1). In my opinion, it would be more helpful to designate the two offices of the church as Elder/Overseer and Servant (as opposed to "Deacon").

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Dead Sea. The ultra-saline body of water that is the terminus of the Jordan River, and the lowest spot on earth. The Dead Sea is approximately 1300 feet (400 meters) below sea level. It is 34 miles (55 km) long and between 11 miles (18 km) and 2 miles (3 km) wide. Actually, the surface level of the Dead Sea has dropped in recent decades. In 1960, the elevation of the Dead Sea was 89 feet (27 meters) higher than it is today. Its current level is 1385 feet (422 meters) below sea level. This is because agriculture and industry have taken water from the Jordan River and even from the Dead Sea itself. Jordan and Israel are in the process of constructing a Red Sea-Dead Sea Canal to restore water being taken from the Dead Sea and its tributaries..

The name "Dead Sea" never appears in the Bible. In the OT it is known as Yam Hamelakh ("Sea of the Salt") (Gen. 14:3; Num. 34:3, 12; Deut. 3:17; Josh. 3:16; 12:3; 15:2, 5; 18:19). Yam, 3220, means "sea," while melakh, 4417, means "salt." Ha is the article "the." It is also known as "The Eastern Sea" (literally, "The Sea, The Eastern" [Hayam, 3220, Haqadmoni, 6931] (Ezek. 47:18; Joel 2:20; Zech. 14:8), as opposed to "The Western Sea" (Joel 2:20; Zech. 14:8), meaning the Mediterranean Sea. It is also called "Sea of the Arabah" [Yam, 3220, Haarabah, 6160] (Deut. 3:17; 4:49; Josh. 3:16; 12:3; 2 Kings 14:25). Since the Dead Sea is the lowest spot on earth, there is no outlet. Water enters, but, because of the arid nature and the heat of the region, 7 million tons of water evaporate daily, leaving an ever-higher concentration of salts and  minerals.

In Christ's Millennial Kingdom, fresh, living water will flow from the Temple into the Dead Sea (Ezek. 47:1-9; Zech. 14:8; Joel 3:18). It will freshen the waters of the Dead Sea so that as many different kinds of fish as are found in the Mediterranean will be found in the rejuvenated Dead Sea (Ezek. 47:10-12)! Fishermen will ply their trade and hang out their nets to dry!

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Dead Sea Scrolls. A collection of leather and papyrus scrolls found in caves along the western shore of the Dead Sea. They contain carefully preserved Biblical texts and fragments from every book of the Hebrew Bible except the book of Esther. These scrolls also contain copies of Hebrew commentaries on certain books such as Pesher Habakkuk and Pesher Psalms. (Pesher means commentary.) The rest of the documents reflect the theological/political views and struggles of a conservative religious sect that inhabited Khirbet Qumran between approximately 150 B.C. to A.D. 68. The scrolls were discovered in 1947 when an Arab shepherd boy threw a rock up into a cave near Qumran. He heard a “chink” and crawled up to see what he had struck. A great many of the scrolls had been preserved in urns. The boy’s rock had struck an urn. Early discoverers had no idea of the enormity of their find. Some of the first manuscripts were used as wrapping paper! Between 1947 and 1956 other scrolls were discovered in eleven caves near Qumran at the northwest corner of the Dead Sea. But the term “Dead Sea Scrolls” also applies to other scrolls discovered in the general area. Some, for example, were discovered at the Jewish fortress of Masada at the southwest edge of the Dead Sea. The value of the scrolls lies in their demonstrating the accuracy with which the Masoretes copied the Hebrew Scriptures in the seventh to tenth centuries A.D. Most scrolls contain few significant differences between the accepted Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible of today. See Qumran.

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Death. In Biblical terms, Separation. In the Bible, death does not mean "cessation of existence." It means "Separation." The concept of death was introduced into the Genesis narrative when as yet, there was no such thing, at least not in human experience. God told Adam, the first man,  "From any tree of the garden you may eat freely" (Gen. 2:16). But then He warned him, "but from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for on the day that you eat from it you will certainly die" (Gen. 2:17).

The Hebrew words for "death" are found in the verb "to die" (mûth, 4191) and the noun "death" (mâveth, 4194). Sheol (she'ôl, 7585) is the place of the dead. The Greek words for "death" are the noun thánatos (2288) and the verb thanatóō (2289), "to put to death" and the more common verb, "to kill" apokteínō (615). The place of the dead is Hades (háidēs, 86).

The Bible speaks of three different kinds of death. Spiritual Death; Physical Death; and Second Death. Spiritual Death speaks of the condition of man's separation from God. Tragically, Adam and Eve disobeyed God and ate from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil (Gen. 3:1-7). And they partook of Spiritual Death instantly. They were separated from God, as evidenced by the fact that they hid from Him (Gen. 3:8). They did not die physically immediately. But the process of physical death began to work in their bodies right away. They began subect to aging, disease, and decay. Physical Death means the separation of man's immaterial being from his physical being. Adam finally did die. In his case it took 930 years. But his immaterial being was separated from his physical being. His body was buried in the ground and decayed to dust (Gen. 3:19). If Spiritual Death is not repaired before Physical Death takes place, the end result is monstrous – Second Death. Second Death is man's separation from God forever in a place of torment, the Lake that burns with Fire and Sulfur. From Second Death there is no redemption.

The only escape from death in all its forms is Jesus Christ. Though sinless, He died on behalf of the sins of all mankind. Then God raised Him from among the dead on the third day. If we trust in Jesus and His sacrificial, substitutionary death and resurrection, we can be redeemed from death in all its forms – Spiritual Death, Physical Death, and Second Death. May you, the reader, trust in Jesus, the Messiah. He is God's only antidote for Death!

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Deity, Divine. In WordExplain, Deity is the noun describing the Ultimate Being possessing Ultimate Power and Authority, the God of the Bible. The corresponding adjective is Divine. We frequently use the word Deity to express the reality that Jesus, the Messiah, although one hundred per cent man, is at the same time, one hundred per cent Deity, that is, He is God as well as man. So Jesus partakes of the same Divine Essence of God, yet the two are distinct Persons. This the Apostle John made clear when he asserted that the Word was with God, and the Word was being God (John 1:1); this One was existing in the beginning with God (John 1:2) (JTB translation). Moreover, when Jesus was praying in the Garden of Gethsemane, for example, He was not talking to Himself (Matt. 26:39-42). It is also accurate to say that God's Holy Spirit is completely Deity, and at the same time He is a Person, possessing all the attributes of personhood.

    In some literature, the term deity (usually spelled in lower case) simply refers to a god, regardless of whether he (or she) is the One True God or a false god. WordExplain rarely, if ever uses the term in that sense. In WordExplain, the term Deity always, unless stated otherwise, refers to the God of the Bible, the One True God. The term Divine, in WordExplain, also carries the idea of being Deity.

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Demon, Demons. Fallen angels (ággelos, 32 messengers), evil spirit beings who rebelled against God along with their leader, Satan. The word translates, at various times, (1) the noun daimónion (1140), (used 63X in the NT) meaning "(1) heathen god, minor divinity (Acts 17:18); (2) predominately demon, evil spirit, regarded as a supernatural and independent being neither human nor divine (Matt. 7:22)" (Friberg); (2) the noun daímōn (1142), used only in Matt. 8:31 in the Greek text behind the NASB, meaning "demon, evil spirit" (Friberg); (3) the adjective daimoniō´dēs (1141), "pertaining to or proceeding from demons demonic, devilish (James 3:15)" (Friberg); and (4) the verb daimonídzomai (1139), used 13X in the Greek NT, "of demon possession or oppression be possessed by, be tormented or vexed by, be demonized (Matt. 4:24)" (Friberg).

Beelzebul is said to be the ruler of the demons (Matt. 12:24, 27; Mark 3:22; Luke 11:15). Luke referred to a man in the synagogue as possessed by the spirit of an unclean demon who loudly proclaimed Jesus of Nazareth as "the Holy One of God" (Luke 4:33-34). Jesus rebuked the demon, who had no choice but to depart from the man (Luke 4:35). This amazed the people in the synagogue (Luke 4:36-37). Seven demons had been cast out of Mary Magdalene (Luke 8:2). The Jews and Jewish religious leaders, unbelievably, accused Jesus of having a demon (John 7:20; 8:48, 52; 10:20). In later times, some will pay attention to deceitful spirits and doctrines of demons (1 Tim. 4:1). The time will come when many on earth will worship demons (Rev. 9:20).

By way of real-life examples, I believe Hamas' blood-thirsty and brutal slaying and beheading of Israelis, including women and babies on October 7, 2023 was motivated by demons. I believe the policy of the US Senate and House of Representatives to spend incessantly money for political advantage – money that America does not possess – is inspired by demons. Many in America approve of and embrace homosexuality, lesbianism, and transgenderism, and they willingly inflict their values on small children and adults in libraries and on the internet, in books and in movies and entertainment. They are, I believe, motivated and influenced by demons. People who push for "pro choice" for women, but not for their unborn babies, whom they willingly murder, are influenced by demons. Satan was a murderer from the beginning, and he is the "Father of Lies" (John 8:44). Satan's demons have learned well from their master, and they assist him in spreading murder and deceit around the globe. Their human followers have also learned the same tactics well.

See also Glossary entries for Fallen Angels and Unclean Spirits. See also articles on Demons, Unclean Spirits, and Fallen Angels.

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Deponent. Greek verbs that are Middle/Passive in form, but are translated in English as Active Voice verbs. The word "deponent" is from the Latin deponere, which means "to lay aside." The idea is that a translator will "lay aside" the actual Middle or Passive Voice form, and substitute the Active Voice. For example, ekporeuésthō (1607) appears in Eph. 4:29 as a Middle/Passive, but is translated as "proceed," rather than as "proceed for oneself" (Middle) or "be caused to proceed" (Passive). Therefore, grammarians label it a Middle/Passive Deponent. It is possible, however, that in some cases verbs labeled as "Middle/Passive Deponent" were really meant by the speaker or writer to be taken in a Middle Voice. For example, Paul may really have meant here "Let no unwholesome word proceed for yourself from your mouth ..." (emphasis mine), which in this instance would be a true Middle Voice. However, the phraseology is a bit cumbersome in English, and translators typically translate the verb as a Middle/Passive Deponent, taking it as an Active Voice, "proceed." See the heading "So-Called Deponent Verbs" in this off-site article, from which most of the glossary entry was derived.

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Devil.  Frequently a reference to God's arch-enemy, also known as Satan.  The term "devil" is  the nominal adjective diábolos (1228), which means, literally, "overthrower," and by extension, "slanderer" or "slanderous." Satan is the ultimate slanderer / overthrower of God and slanderer / overthrower of God's people. The term diábolos appears 37X in the NT. It almost inevitably appears with the article "the" and refers to "the devil," Satan. 

    There are a few anarthrous exceptions. In John 6:70 Jesus stated that one of the twelve was a devil. Literally, Jesus said, "...and of you one devil is." It is doubtful that Jesus was asserting that Judas was "the Devil" incarnate. Rather, I believe, He was asserting that Judas was a demon, a subordinate of "the Devil."  In Acts 13:10, Paul, addressing Elymas the magician, called him, literally, "son of devil." Whether Paul was referring to "the Devil" or to a subordinate demon is unclear.  In 1 Tim. 3:11 Paul, giving here, I believe, qualifications for the Deacons' wives, stated, "Women" must ... be ... not malicious gossips," the two words translating the single Greek word diábolos. The same two words, "malicious gossips," translating the single Greek word appear also in 2 Tim. 3:3 and Tit. 2:3.

    For additional information on this topic see the Glossary entry on Satan. See also "Satan, the Adversary of God." See also articles on Satan's demonic assistants: "Demons"; "Unclean Spirits"; and "Fallen Angels".

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Destruction of the Heavens and Earth.  The final dissolution of the present physical universe paving the way for God’s creation of New Heavens and Earth.  The existing universe was ruined by Adam’s sin and the ensuing curse.  Decay and entropy set in.  The existing universe began slowly to die.  It is not a fit habitation for resurrected humans.  God has no other choice than to destroy the existing universe by fire, purging the effects of sin (2 Pet. 3:7-12).  A new universe without decay and with a new earth graced by New Jerusalem as its capital city is the home of redeemed and resurrected man throughout eternity (Isa. 65:17; 66:22; 2 Pet. 3:13; Rev. 21:1-22:5)!

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Diaspora. The "Dispersed" of Israel, i.e., those not living in the land of Israel. There was a long-time understanding in the Law of Moses that Israelis who obeyed God would be blessed in the land (Deut. 28:1-14), and that Israelis who disobeyed God would be exiled, dispersed from the land (Deut. 28:15-68). The first great dispersion (or exile) of Israelis occurred in 722 B.C., when Assyria deported virtually the entire Northern Ten Tribes of Israel into the land of Assyria (2 Kings 17:1-23). These Israelis never returned. Instead, they remained dispersed, and the king of Assyria replaced them with Gentiles from Babylon, Cuthah, Avva, Hamath, and Sepharvaim (2 Kings 17:24-41). These mongrel, syncretistic peoples became the progenitors of the Samaritans, so despised in Jesus' day (John 4:9).

The second great dispersion took place in successive invasions of Judah by Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon in 606, 597, and 586 B.C. Some citizens of Judah were exiled in each of the first two invasions, but the greatest deportation occurred when Nebuchadnezzar's troops destroyed the city of Jerusalem and Solomon's Temple in 586 B.C. Daniel, for example, was deported in 606 B.C. (Dan. 1:1-7); Ezekiel in 597 B.C. (2 Kings 24:10-16); and blinded King Zedekiah in 586 B.C. (2 Kings 25:1-21). 

Three notable returns from the Babylonian exile began under the aegis of Persia. King Cyrus authorized the first return of exiled Israelis back to Judah under Zerubbabel in about 536 B.C. (Ezra 1:1-11; 2:1-2). Zerubbabel and others helped restore the altar and sacrifices (Ezra 3:1-7) and laid the foundation of the temple (Ezra 3:8-13). A second return to Judea under Ezra took place in 458 B.C. under the auspices of King Artaxerxes (Ezra 7:1-26; 8:1-32). Nehemiah led yet a third return from exile in 444 B.C., also under the guidance of Artaxerxes (Neh. 1:1-2:10). Nehemiah galvanized the people into rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem (Neh. 2:11-20; 3:1-32; 4:1-23).

In a terrible fulfillment of prophecy (Dan. 9:26; Luke 19:41-44; 21:20-44), Rome destroyed Jerusalem and Herod's Temple in A.D. 70. The Romans systematically drove Israelis from their land. For millennia, there have been more Israelis living outside of Israel than inside. "Of the estimated 14 million Jews in the world today, about 4 million reside in Israel, about 4.5 million in the United States, and about 2.2 million in Russia, Ukraine, and other republics formerly of the Soviet Union." There was already a Diaspora in Jesus' day (John 7:35). James wrote to Christian members of the Jewish diaspora (James 1:1), as did Peter (1 Pet. 1:1).

The Bible has a great deal to say about the ultimate return of Jewish people to the land of Israel. Under the influence of Christian politicians in Britain, Zionism grew as a compelling national movement. With the horror of the holocaust of Nazi Germany, the United Nations, in a brief spasm of guilt, authorized a homeland for Israel, and Israel declared its independence on May 14, 1948. The vast majority of Jewish people who have returned to Israel do not believe in God. Even though a minority say they do, most don't, for they have rejected His Son. But one day that will change, and Israelis will return to the land of Israel to live from all over the globe. The Israeli term for "Return" is Aliyah.

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Disciple. He who in the NT became a follower of a teacher, or rabbi, and endeavored to learn as much from his tutor as he could. A learner, apprentice, follower, pupil. The word comes from the noun mathētēs (3101), which means, strictly, a learner. John the Immerser had disciples (Mark 2:18; 6:29; 11:2; John 1:35; Acts 19:1-3), as did the Pharisees (Matt. 22:15-16), and so, of course, did Jesus (Matt. 5:1; 9:10; John 2:2, 11, 12, 17; 4:31 etc.). The Pharisees claimed to be disciples of Moses (John 9:28). A professor of mine at Dallas Seminary, J. Dwight Pentecost, taught that there were three levels of discipleship. There were, first, the curious, then the convinced, and finally, the committed. It was Jesus' purpose to move disciples from one stage to the next. We can see that not all of Jesus' disciples were completely committed to Him (John 6:61, 66). From among Jesus' larger circle of disciples he chose twelve as apostles (Luke 6:13-16) and sent them forth on healing / teaching missions (Luke 9:1-6). After Jesus ascended to heaven, his followers, at least for a time, continued to be identified as "disciples." The term mathētēs (3101) in the Greek text appears 72X in Matthew, 46X in Mark, 37X in Luke, 78X in John, and 28X in Acts. Thereafter, it does not appear a single time!

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Dispensation. A method of God’s dealing with man in a particular time frame.  God has issued a decree of all that shall come to pass without making Himself in any sense responsible for evil.  God does not work the same way with particular groups of people in different eras.  He has different methods of administering His Kingdom here upon earth (Eph. 1:10).  A dispensation is a particular way God deals with a particular group of people at a particular point in history. See Dispensationalism.

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Dispensationalism, Dispensational Theology.  Dispensationalism is the system of theology that recognizes that God works with different peoples in different ways at different times.  Dispensationalism is characterized by a grammatical, historical, literal interpretation of Scripture, while recognizing the existence of figures of speech and symbolism.  Dispensationalists make a point to understand Scripture as it was understood in the day in which it was written by the people to whom it was written.  Though New Testament interpretations of Old Testament Scripture may provide additional light and revelation on Old Testament passages, they do not displace or abrogate the Old Testament meaning. Dispensationalism thus distinguishes God’s program for Israel and His program for the Church.  For example: while the New Covenant God made with Israel (Jer. 31:31-37) is applied to the Church (1 Cor. 11:23-25; Heb. 8:6-13; 9:11-15), that New Testament application does not invalidate or supersede God's plan to restore Israel under the terms of the New Covenant, described repeatedly in the Old Testament as an everlasting covenant (Isa. 55:3; 61:8; Jer. 32:40; 50:5; Ezek. 16:60; 37:26). While God put Israel on the shelf as a nation, that displacement from His sphere of blessing is only temporary, as Paul made abundantly clear in Romans 9-11.  True blessing on this earth and throughout eternity will only take place when God’s people, descendants of Abraham, Isaac, through Jacob (Israel), have been reconciled to Him through Jesus their Messiah.

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Diversity, Equity, Inclusion (DEI): The sinister agenda of the "woke" left to normalize and celebrate perversions of God's created order. For example, God created man male and female. DEI seeks to denigrate God's role for men and women in the home and in the church. DEI seeks to normalize and celebrate homosexuality, lesbianism, and transgenderism. DEI seeks to demonize men, especially white men, and celebrate women. In America, DEI practices "Identity Politics," seeking to portray various segments of the populations and society as "victims" who can only be "saved" by the Democratic Party and Government (run by Democrats). (More forthcoming, including "Environmentalism.")

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Dragon. The symbol in the Bible of the Devil, also known as Satan. He first presented himself as a wise, beguiling, and beautiful Serpent in the Garden of Eden (Gen. 3:1-5, 14-15). He is depicted as Leviathan  (Isa. 27:1).  He is depicted in  Rev. 12:3-4 as a  Great Red Dragon having seven heads and ten horns. He swept away a third of the stars (probably referring to his deceiving a third of God's angels to join him in his rebellion). He attempted to kill Christ (Rev. 12:4; cf. Matt. 2:13, 16-18). He is depicted in Rev. 12:7-8 as fighting, along with his demonic angels, a war in heaven against Michael and his angels. Michael and his angels defeated the Dragon and his angels. Satan and his angels were thrown down to earth (Rev. 12:9). This verse is central because it identifies the Dragon under five titles: "Great Dragon," "Serpent of Old," "Devil," "Satan," "Deceiver of the Whole World." He is identified as the ultimate persecutor of Israel (Rev. 12:13-17). He is the one who will empower the world dictator know as the Antichrist during the Tribulation period (Rev. 13:1-4). He also will empower the False Prophet (Rev. 13:11). He will motivate and incite the Battle of Armageddon (Rev. 16:13-16). During Christ's Millennial Reign the Dragon will be imprisoned in the Abyss for a thousand years (Rev. 20:1-3) to prevent him from deceiving the nations of the world. When the thousand years have been completed, Satan, the Dragon, will be released from the Abyss. He will succeed in deceiving millions of people (who have never really been believers in Jesus) to revolt against His "tyrannical" reign. Fire will come down from heaven and destroy them (Rev. 20:7-9). The Devil who deceived them will be thrown into the Lake of Fire and Brimstone, where he will remain in torment forever (Rev. 20:7-10).

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Drawing. The act or process of God whereby He attracts people to Jesus Christ, and thus to Himself. The verb "draw" (helkuō, 1670), literally means to "drag" or "haul in" (John 21:6, 11). The metaphorical meaning is to "attract" (John 6:44; 12:32). As is the case with calling, there is a general, or universal drawing, and a special, effective drawing. The general drawing is to be seen in John 12:32. In effect, Jesus meant there, "If I am crucified, I will draw (attract) all men to myself." What He probably meant, further, was that, on the basis of His death for the sins of all men, all would have the opportunity to accept or reject His universal sacrifice for themselves. Moreover, all will one day stand in judgment before the Messiah in judgment to be evaluated on the basis of whether or not they have accepted or rejected the benefits of His death and resurrection (John 5:25-29). The special, effective drawing means that there are certain people (the elect), whom the Father will draw, or attract to Jesus (John 6:44, 65). Only these will believe in Jesus (John 6:64; 10:24-29). "Drawing" (helkuō, 1670), may be simply another term for the same concept as "calling" (kaleō, 2564). If it be objected that God is not fair in drawing some, but not all to salvation, the answer is that God is not ethically or morally obligated to draw anyone to salvation. "Fairness" means that all of us would inevitably be destined for the Lake of Fire and Brimstone (Rev. 20:11-15). That God draws anyone at all to salvation is a testament to His grace, mercy, and goodness (Matt. 20:1-16). See also "Defending Election."

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Drusilla. Daughter of King Herod Agrippa I, King of Palestine (37-44 AD). Drusilla was said to be very beautiful. She was the sister of Herod Agrippa II and Bernice. She married Felix, the Governor of Judea (52-59 AD). Drusilla had been given in marriage at the age of fourteen to Azizus, king of Emeza. Unhappy with this marriage, she was later seduced by Governor Felix. He took Drusilla as his third wife, and they had a son named Agrippa. Felix was governor at Caesarea when Claudius Lysias, commander of a Roman contingent, spirited Paul by night to Caesarea to prevent a Jewish mob from assassinating Paul (Acts 23:12-35). There, Felix, along with his wife Drusilla, who was a Jewess, heard Paul's case. Felix became frightened and kept Paul imprisoned, hoping for a bribe. None came, and when Porcius Festus succeeded him in office, Felix left him bound (Acts 24:22-27). See Constable's Table of the Family Tree of Herod the Great.

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Dynamic Equivalence. The theory of Bible translation championed by Eugene Nida which "emphasizes the reaction of the reader to the translated text, rather than the translation of the words and phrases themselves. In simplest terms, dynamic equivalence is often referred to as 'thought for thought' translation as compared to 'essentially literal' translation ..."DE1 A "dynamic equivalent" is "a meaning in the receptor language that corresponds to (is 'equivalent' to) a meaning in a native-language text (for example, the 'heart' as the modern way of denoting the essence of a person, especially the emotions, which for the ancients was situated in the kidneys)."DE2 Dynamic equivalence, then, is "a theory of translation based on the premise that whenever something in the native-language text is foreign or unclear to a contemporary reader, the original text should be translated in terms of a dynamic equivalent."DE3 The opposite of a dynamic equivalence translation is an essentially literal translation: "a translation that strives to translate the exact words of the original-language text in a translation, but not in such a rigid way as to violate the normal rules of language and syntax in the receptor language."DE4 Formal equivalence, or "word-for-word" translation is another way of identifying an essentially literal translation philosophy. A formal equivalence theory is more concerned about fidelity to the original language and culture of the Biblical text than it is about appealing to the sensibilities and culture of the target language. In general terms, a dynamic equivalence theory of translation is more concerned about appealing to the sensibilities and culture of the target language than it is about preserving fidelity to the original language and culture. 

C. John Collins has identified four ways in which dynamic equivalence is "opposed to accuracy: (1) such translations make interpretive decisions for the reader, and run the risk of deciding wrongly; (2) such a philosophy requires the translator to resolve ambiguities for the reader; (3) this philosophy urges the translator to interpret images and figures for the reader; and (4) this philosophy generally leads to the loss of important repetitions."DE5 To Collins' list I would add a fifth way that dynamic equivalence opposes accuracy. (5) Since this philosophy is more devoted to the reaction of the reader to the translated text than it is to fidelity to the original, the subjective target audience becomes the ultimate arbiter for translation rather than the original text. In practical terms, this philosophy permits the translators to edit the translation so that it is not objectionable to the readers. To be even more specific, if the presumed audience has been brain-washed by a particular political dogma, such as feminism, many of the masculine terms in Scripture will be deemed offensive to the sensibilities of modern society seduced by that feminism. This is precisely my objection to such translations as the New Revised Standard Version, The Message, the New Living Translation, the Contemporary English Version, the New Century Version, and just recently, the NIV 2011. (I am not saying that all these translations are on the same par when it comes to dynamic equivalence. But all have been influenced by political correctness and by the mantra of that which they prefer to call "gender inclusiveness" and which I prefer to call "masking of masculinity.") Surely God wants His Word to stand in judgment upon culture rather than for culture to stand in judgment on God's Word.

For a critique of dynamic equivalence online, read "Against the Theory of 'Dynamic Equivalence'" by Michael Marlowe, revised, August, 2010.

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DE1 Leland Ryken, The Word of God in English: Criteria for Excellence in Bible Translation, Crossway Books, 2002, p. 13

DE2Leland Ryken, p. 18.

DE3 Leland Ryken, p. 18.

DE4Leland Ryken, p. 19.

DE5C. John Collins, "Appendix: Without Form, You Lose Meaning," appended in Leland Ryken, op. cit.,  pp. 300-301.

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Updated March 5, 2024